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"Can"

(abil/ebil)

In Turkish, we express "can" using the suffix "abil/ebil". We attach the appropriate one to the verb root based on its last vowel. "abil/ebil" can be used with any tense but is usually used with present simple tense.

Positive

We begin with the verb root. We attach one of "abil/ebil" depending on the root's last vowel. If the letter at the end of the verb root is a vowel, we also first attach a "y" to prevent having two vowels side by side. Thereafter we add the tense suffix followed by the personal suffix.

Last vowel of verb roota/ı/o/ue/i/ö/ü
Suffix-[y]abil--[y]ebil-

Examples:

Ben yazabilirim - I can write
Sen duyabilirsin - You can hear
Onlar gelebilirler - They can come
Biz yüzebiliriz - We can swim
O okuyabilir - He/she/it can read
Siz izleyebilirsiniz - You can watch

Negative

For negative, we attach one of "a/e" followed by the negative suffix "ma/me" to the verb root. The suffixes we add depend on the verb root's last vowel. If the letter at the end of the verb root is a vowel, we also first attach a "y" to prevent having two vowels side by side. Thereafter we add the tense suffix followed by the personal suffix.

Last vowel of verb roota/ı/o/ue/i/ö/ü
Suffix-[y]ama--[y]eme-

Examples:

Ben yazamam - I cannot write
Sen duyamazsın - You cannot hear
Onlar gelemezler - They cannot come
Biz yüzemeyiz - We cannot swim
O okuyamaz - He/she/it cannot read
Siz izleyemezsiniz - You cannot watch