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Alphabet

The Turkish alphabet is a modified version of the Latin alphabet and consists of 29 letters. Included are 6 additional letters - ç, ğ, ı, ö, ş, ü - while - q, w, x - are excluded.


Upper Case
A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z
Lower Case
a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z


Vowels: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü
Consonants: b, c, ç, d, f, g, ğ, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, ş, t, v, y, z


Pronunciation

Most Turkish letters are similar in pronunciation to their English counterparts. There are a few letters however whose pronunciation is unique to Turkish.

"Yumuşak ge" (Ğ ğ) or "soft g" for example always follows a vowel and is pronounced in one of two ways. If the vowel before it is one of a, ı, o, u then "yumuşak ge" will lengthen the sound of that vowel, eg. yağmur, ağaç. If the vowel is one of e, i, ö, ü then "yumuşak ge" will be pronounced as "y", eg. eğitim, iğne. Since "yumuşak ge" is always preceded by a vowel there are no words in Turkish that start with it.


LetterNameAudioApproximate PronunciationTurkish Example
A aa sunkalem (pen)
B bbe busbalık (fish)
C cce jarcep (pocket)
Ç ççe chatçay (tea)
D dde doordeve (camel)
E ee eggev (house)
F ffe facefil (elephant)
G gge gardengemi (ship)
Ğ ğyumuşak ge Lengthens vowel (After a,ı,o,u)yağmur (rain)
yellow (After e,i,ö,ü)eğitim (education)
H hhe hathavlu (towel)
I ıı cousinıspanak (spinach)
İ ii internetİngilizce (English)
J jje pleasurejimnastik (gymnastics)
K kke kitekitap (book)
L lle lamblimon (lemon)
M mme mothermasa (desk)
N nne nestNamaz (Prayer)
O oo orangeokul (school)
Ö öö cureördek (duck)
P ppe penparmak (finger)
R rre roseresim (picture)
S sse soccersu (water)
Ş şşe shoeşeker (sugar)
T tte traintop (ball)
U uu bookuçak (airplane)
Ü üü cuteülke (country)
V vve windowvazo (vase)
Y yye yellowyemek (food)
Z zze zebrazambak (lily)